Apparently during the upgrade Windows 10 installs the Broadcom Bluetooth 3.0 USB, which is incorrect for the Logitech mini-transmitter and will not start.
First, download and install the latest version of SetPoint from Logitech [6.67.82_64]. Then under Device Manager uninstall the Broadcom Bluetooth 3.0 USB. Unplug the Logitech dongle, if not done already. Then, with SetPoint opened, plug the dongle back in to an available USB port.
The codes are usually explained on a wiring diagram that is on the back panel.
Check yours, it might be different! For me, a continuously blinking light is normal.
- Flashing slow: Normal – no call for heat
- Flashing fast: Normal – call for heat
- Continuous on: Replace IFC (circuit board)
- Continuous off: Check power
- 2 Flashes: External lockout (retries or recycles exceeded)
- 3 Flashes: Pressure switch error
- 4 Flashes: Open limit device
- 5 Flashes: Flame sensed when no flame should be present
- 6 Flashes: 115 VAC power reversed polarity or poor grounding
- 7 Flashes: Gas valve circuit error
- 8 Flashes: Low flame sense signal
- 9 Flashes: Check igniter
FYI, for a modern furnace, Never attempt to light your furnace manually. It likely uses a direct ignition system so when power is cycled, the pilot will then ignite automatically. It’s better to just call your gas company if there was an outage.
There are many apps to stream from computer to phone (AirStream: Stream PC over Air or SoundWire) but I want to listen to a podcast or music using my Android phone but listening on my computer or headset. It’s a good thing you can play the song wirelessly using Bluetooth on both the devices.
- Install Microsoft Windows Mobile Device Center.
- Turn on Bluetooth on the computer and the phone then each of them visible.
- Right-click on the Bluetooth icon in the Windows system tray and select the option Add a device
- Pair your phone and your computer with each other.
- Right-click on the Bluetooth icon in the system tray again but now select Show Bluetooth Devices.
- Right-click on your paired phone and click on the Bluetooth Operations.
- (If A2DP support is available on the phone, it will show an option to Play Music under Audio and Video operation.)
- Click on the link to activate.
- You should now have a player control will appear on your taskbar (If not, try and right-click on the taskbar and select Bluetooth Remote Control under the Toolbars)
If you run into a problem, check this out.
In the mid 1960’s the Bell System companies used the 505A plug, a round connector with four prongs. We’ve moved to the de facto standard of Registered Jacks.
Common Registered Jacks
|RJ2MB||50-pin micro ribbon||2–12 telephone lines with make-busy arrangement|
|RJ11(C/W)||6P2C||For one telephone line (6P4C if power on second pair)|
|RJ12(C/W)||6P6C||For one telephone line ahead of the key system|
|RJ13(C/W)||6P4C||For one telephone line behind the key system|
|RJ14(C/W)||6P4C||For two telephone lines (6P6C if power on third pair)|
|RJ15C||3-pin weatherproof||For one telephone line|
|RJ18(C/W)||6P6C||For one telephone line with make-busy arrangement|
|RJ21X||50-pin micro ribbon||For up to 25 lines|
|RJ25(C/W)||6P6C||For three telephone lines|
|RJ26X||50-pin micro ribbon||For multiple data lines, universal|
|RJ27X||50-pin micro ribbon||For multiple data lines, programmed|
|RJ31X||8P4C||Allows an alarm system to seize the telephone line to make an outgoing call during an alarm. Jack is placed ahead of all other equipment. (Only 4 conductors are used)|
|RJ38X||8P4C||Similar to RJ31X, with continuity circuit. If the plug is disconnected from the jack shorting bars allows the phone circuit to continue to the site phones. (Only 4 conductors are used)|
|RJ41S||8P8C, keyed||For one data line, universal (fixed loop loss and programmed)|
|RJ45S||8P8C, keyed||For one data line, with programming resistor|
|RJ48C||8P4C||For four-wire data line (DSX-1)|
|RJ48S||8P4C, keyed||For four-wire data line (DDS)|
|RJ48X||8P4C with shorting bar||For four-wire data line (DS1)|
|RJ49C||8P8C||For ISDN BRI via NT1|
|RJ61X||8P8C||For four telephone lines|
|RJ71C||50-pin micro ribbon||12 line series connection using 50-pin connector (with bridging adapter) ahead of customer equipment. Mostly used for call sequencer equipment.|
Many of the basic names have suffixes that indicate subtypes:
- C: flush-mount or surface mount
- F: flex-mount
- W: wall-mount
- L: lamp-mount
- S: single-line
- M: multi-line
- X: complex jack
An RJ-48 plug is often mistaken for RJ-45. On the outside, the two look identical—both are housed in miniature 8-position jacks. The difference is in the wire pairing. RJ-48 connectorIn RJ-48, two of the wires are for transmit, two are for receive, and two are for the drain. The last two wires are reserved for future use
There are three subsets within RJ-48: RJ-48C, RJ-48X, and RJ-48S. RJ-48C and RJ-48X are very similar, though RJ-48C is more common. Both use lines 1, 2, 4, and 5, and connect T1 lines. RJ-48X connectors, however, have shorting bars. RJ-48S uses lines 1, 2, 7, and 8, and generally connects 56K DDS lines.
Here’s how RJ-48C pinning compares to RJ-48S pinning:
|1||Receive ring||Receive data +|
|2||Receive tip||Receive data –|
|3||No connection||No connection|
|4||Transmit ring||No connection|
|5||Transmit tip||No connection|
|6||No connection||No connection|
|7||No connection||Transmit data +|
|8||No connection||Transmit data –|
(*T568B is equivalent to AT&T 258A so for reasons of tradition, it’s likely the wire scheme the telco is going to drop off)
DS0 / DDS Termination
The demarcation point (DMARC) is the point at which the public switched telephone network (PSTN)ends and connects with the customer’s on-premises wiring (called Inside Wire or IW.) Don’t confuse this with a NIU, it’s the same but different.
For residential locations you might have started off with an old Western Electric Company (WECO) lightning protector:
After that they went to the carbon and porcelain blocks which were much smaller:
They got fancy with mounts & attached them to the side of your house:
Then we come to the modern Network Interface Device, Telephone Network Interface, NID, NI, dmarc:
What about businesses? Do they just have 66 of these on the wall, one for each line?
Don’t be crazy, they use a 66 block / M-Block / B-Block as a type of punchdown block to terminate the line.
They could also have a 110 block:
A Data Service Unit/Channel Service Unit (DSU/CSU) WAN Interface Card ( WIC) these days is usually a blade on a router. In the past, these were separate. The CSU originated at AT&T as an interface to their non-switched digital data system. The DSU provides an interface to the data terminal equipment (DTE) using a standard (EIA/CCITT) interface. It also provides testing capabilities. They evolved from standalone hardware, to shelf type systems and are now just a blade or Wan Interfacde Card (WIC) in a router.
The functions of the LEDs
|TD||Data is being transmitted to the DTE interface.|
|RD||Data is being received from the DTE interface.|
|LP||Internal DSU/CSU is in loopback mode.|
|AL||One of these alarm conditions is present: no receive signal, loss of frame signal from the remote station, or out of service signal from the remote station. This LED is off during normal operation.|
|CD||Internal DSU/CSU in the WIC is communicating with another DSU/CSU. This LED is on during normal operation|
There are many manufactures, each with their own ideas of abbreviations so TD, TX, or TXD all mean you’re transmitting data. You may not have every LED but in general…
|ERR, ER||Error indicator|
|AL, ALARM||Critical alarm indicator|
|Loop, LP||Diagnostic loopback indicator|
|SYNC, RS||DTE sync indicator (Receive signa from telco)|
|TD, TX, or TXD||Transmit data|
|RD, RX, or RXD||Receive data|
|CTS||Clear to send (per flow control)|
|CLOS||Carrier loss of signal|
|RLOS||Receiver loss of signal|
What you could see
|1||flash||flash||Normal – up and passing traffic|
|2||Loopback mode detected from telco or configured in CPE|
|3||flash||flash||flash||Circuit is experiencing errors, but still passing traffic.|
|4||CSU detects a total disconnect. Circuit disconnected/no cable.|
|5||Carrier loss of signal. Possible timing, switch misconfiguration, or circuit degradation|
|6||Receiver loss of signal. Possible timing, switch misconfiguration|
North American Digital Signal Hierarchy
In the 1960’s The Bell System / AT&T came up with a transport system based off 64K (bits) “channels.” To come up with 64K, consider the voice frequency (VF) or voice band frequencies used in telephony, approximately 300 Hz to 3400 Hz. You can refer to this as baseband or narrowband. (Telecom likes to have several names for the same thing.)
A single voice transmission channel is about 4 kHz and is sampled at 8 kHz. Why? Because the Nyquist theorem says so.
(4,000 Hz is an adequate sweet-spot for human speech, it’s not exact but when reproduced at the other end, you can recognize it’s grandma when she calls.)
So what ya get is:
2 x 4K = 8K samples per second, each one of those sample is/used 8-bit pulse-code modulation which ends up as 8K x 8 = 64K bits per second – a DS0. (It will be called D-S-O or D-S-Zero interchangeably.)
Robbed bits for signaling
Here’s the catch – the low order bit is used for signaling purposes. For voice this created noise that you really can’t hear so Ma Bell didn’t care. For digital data you can’t fudge it like that, only 7 bits can be used. 8,000 7-bit samples gives you 56 kbps. Today you can get around this using different line codes and bit stuffing.
So the hierarchy using a DS0 of 64K or 64,000 bits per second:
|1st||1.544 Mbit/s||DS1||T-1||24||In ISDN PRI = 23B (user) + 1D (signaling) channels|
|IntermediateLevel||3.152 Mbit/s||DS1C||48||DS1C uses two DS1 signals combined and sent on a 3.152 megabit per second carrier which allows 64 kilobits per second for synchronisation and framing using pulse stuffing. Never common, you won’t see this in use.|
|2nd||6.312 Mbit/s||DS2||T-2||96||4 x DS1. Never common, you won’t see this in use.|
|3rd||44.736 Mbit/s||DS3||T-3||672||28 x DS1|
|Intermediate Level||139.264 Mbit/s||DS4NA||2016||3 x DS3 Highest designed in ANSI T1.107|
|4th Level||274.176 Mbit/s||DS4||T-4||4032||Replaced with Optical Carrier / OCx|
|5th Level||400.352 Mbit/s||DS5||T-5||5760||Replaced with Optical Carrier / OCx|
HOLD UP – 24 x 64,000 bits per second won’t get you 1.544 Mbit/s. What you have is 24 x 64,000 = 1.536 Mbit/s. Bits are lost between frames because a frame separator is needed for every 8 bit sample of the of the 24 channels . So yes, 24 x 8 = 192 but adding the separator, 193 bits per frame x 8K samples = 1.544 Mbit/s.
Anything above a T3 is now optical/fiber.
SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) in North America or SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) elsewhere is the modern day optical transmission systems. It’s nice because everything is a multiple of the OC-1 rate of 51.84 Mbps.
|Level Two||2488.32 Mbit/s||STS-48||STM-16||OC-48|
|Level Three||9953.28 Mbit/s||STS-192||STM-64||OC-192|
Optical Carrier Rates
|Optical Carrier||Data Rate||Payload-SONET (SPE)||User Data Rate||SONET||SDH|
|OC-1||51.84 Mbit/s||50.112 Mbit/s||49.536||STS-1||—|
|OC-3||155.52 Mbit/s||150.336 Mbit/s||148.608||STS-3||STM-1|
|OC-9||466.56 Mbit/s||451.044 Mbit/s||445.824||STS-9||STM-3|
|OC-12||622.08 Mbit/s||601.344 Mbit/s||594.824||STS-12||STM-4|
|OC-18||933.12 Mbit/s||902.088 Mbit/s||891.648||STS-18||STM-6|
|OC-24||1244.16 Mbit/s||1202.784 Mbit/s||1188.864||STS-24||STM-8|
|OC-36||1866.24 Mbit/s||1804.176 Mbit/s||1783.296||STS-36||STM-12|
|OC-48||2488.32 Mbit/s||2.4 Gbps||2377.728||STS-48||STM-16|
|OC-192||9953.28 Mbit/s||9.6 Gbps||9510.912||STS-192||STM-64|
To slice up the 51.84 Mbit/s, you can have a sub-STS-1 facilitie. VT1.5 is common because it can carry 1.728 Mbit/s (enough room for a DS1/T1 signal.) There’s a lot of overhead in SONET.